Historical changes (1905-2005) in external phosphorus loads to Loch Leven, Scotland, UK

May, L.; Defew, L.H.; Bennion, H.; Kirika, A.. 2012 Historical changes (1905-2005) in external phosphorus loads to Loch Leven, Scotland, UK. Hydrobiologia, 681 (1). 11-21.

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This article reviews historical changes in the total phosphorus (TP) inputs to Loch Leven, Scotland, UK. Data derived from palaeolimnological records suggest that inputs in the early 1900s were about 6 t TP year-1 (0.45 g TP m-2 year-1). By 1985, this had risen to about 20 t TP year-1 (1.5 g TP m-2 year-1) due to increases in runoff from agricultural land and discharges from point sources. By the late 1970s, increased TP inputs were causing serious degradation of lake water quality. Most noticeably, there had been an increase in cyanobacterial blooms. A catchment management plan was implemented in the early 1990s. This resulted in a 60% reduction in the annual TP input between 1985 (20 t TP year-1/1.5 g TP m-2 year-1) and 1995 (8 t TP year-1/0.6 g TP m-2 year-1). The main reduction was associated with better control of point source discharges, but attempts were also made to reduce inputs from diffuse sources. The reduction in external TP loading to the lake led to a marked decline in TP retention by the lake each year.

Item Type: Publication - Article
Digital Object Identifier (DOI):
Programmes: CEH Topics & Objectives 2009 - 2012 > Water > WA Topic 2 - Ecohydrological Processes > WA - 2.3 - Assess the responses of river, lake and wetland ecosystems to ecohydrological drivers
UKCEH and CEH Sections/Science Areas: Watt
ISSN: 0018-8158
Additional Information. Not used in RCUK Gateway to Research.: The original publication is available at
Additional Keywords: lake, eutrophication, restoration
NORA Subject Terms: Ecology and Environment
Date made live: 15 Dec 2011 12:13 +0 (UTC)

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