Human urinary biomonitoring in Western Kenya for micronutrients and potentially harmful elements

Watts, Michael J.; Menya, Diana; Humphrey, Olivier S.; Middleton, DanielR.S.; Hamilton, Elliott; Marriott, Andrew; McCormack, Valerie; Osano, Odipo. 2021 Human urinary biomonitoring in Western Kenya for micronutrients and potentially harmful elements. International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health, 238, 113854.

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Spot urinary elemental concentrations are presented for 357 adults from Western Kenya collected between 2016 and 2019 as part of a wider environmental geochemical survey. The aim of this study was to establish population level urinary elemental concentrations in Western Kenya for micronutrients and potentially harmful elements for inference of health status against established thresholds. For elements where thresholds inferring health status were not established in the literature using urine as a non-invasive matrix, this study generated reference values with a 95% confidence interval (RV95s) to contextualise urinary elemental data for this population group. Data are presented with outliers removed based upon creatinine measurements leaving 322 individuals, for sub-categories (e.g. age, gender) and by county public health administrative area. For Western Kenya, reference values with a 95% confidence interval (RV95s) were calculated as follows (μg/L): 717 (I), 89 (Se), 1753 (Zn), 336 (Mo), 24 (Cu), 15.6 (Ni), 22.1 (As), 0.34 (Cd), 0.47 (Sn), 0.46 (Sb), 7.0 (Cs), 13.4 (Ba and 1.9 (Pb). Urinary concentrations at the 25th/75th percentiles were as follows (μg/L): 149/368 (I), 15/42 (Se), 281/845 (Zn), 30/128 (Mo), 6/13 (Cu), 1.7/6.1 (Ni), 2.0/8.2 (As). 0.1/0.3 (Cd), 0.05/0.22 (Sn), 0.04/0.18 (Sb), 1.2/3.6 (Cs), 0.8/4.0 (Ba) and 0.2/0.9 (Pb). Urinary concentrations at a population level inferred excess intake of micronutrients I, Se, Zn and Mo in 38, 6, 57 and 14% of individuals, respectively, versus a bioequivalent (BE) upper threshold limit, whilst rates of deficiency were relatively low at 15, 15, 9 and 18%, respectively. Each of the administrative counties showed a broadly similar range of urinary elemental concentrations, with some exceptions for counties bordering Lake Victoria where food consumption habits may differ significantly to other counties e.g. I, Se, Zn. Corrections for urinary dilution using creatinine, specific gravity and osmolality provided a general reduction in RV95s for I, Mo, Se, As and Sn compared to uncorrected data, with consistency between the three correction methods.

Item Type: Publication - Article
Digital Object Identifier (DOI):
ISSN: 14384639
Date made live: 12 Jan 2022 15:15 +0 (UTC)

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