Sources of PM2.5 at an urban-industrial Mediterranean city, Marseille (France): application of the ME-2 solver to inorganic and organic markers

Salameh, D.; Pey, J.; Bozzetti, C.; El Haddad, I.; Detournay, A.; Sylvestre, A.; Canonaco, F.; Armengaud, A.; Piga, D.; Robin, D.; Prevot, A.S.H.; Jaffrezo, J.-L.; Wortham, H.; Marchand, N.. 2018 Sources of PM2.5 at an urban-industrial Mediterranean city, Marseille (France): application of the ME-2 solver to inorganic and organic markers. Atmospheric Research, 214. 263-274.

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Impacted by a complex mixture of urban, industrial, shipping and also natural emissions, Marseille, the second most populated city in France, represents a very interesting case study for the apportionment of PM2.5 sources in a Mediterranean urban environment. In this study, daily PM2.5 samples were collected over a one-year period (2011−2012) at an urban background site, and were comprehensively analyzed for the determination of organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), major ions, trace elements/metals and specific organic markers. A constrained positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis using the ME-2 (multilinear engine-2) solver was applied to this dataset. PMF results highlighted the presence of two distinct fingerprints for biomass burning (BB1 and BB2). BB1, assigned to open green waste burning peaks in fall (33%; 7.4 μg m−3) during land clearing periods, is characterized by a higher levoglucosan/OC ratio, while BB2, assigned to residential heating, shows the highest contribution during the cold period in winter (14%; 3.3 μg m−3) and it is characterized by high proportions from lignin pyrolysis products from the combustion of hardwood. Another interesting feature lies in the separation of two fossil fuel combustion processes (FF1 and FF2): FF1 likely dominated by traffic emissions, while FF2 likely linked with the harbor/industrial activities. On annual average, the major contributors to PM2.5 mass correspond to the ammonium sulfate-rich aerosol (AS-rich, 30%) and to the biomass burning emissions (BB1 + BB2, 23%). This study also outlined that during high PM pollution episodes (PM2.5 > 25 μg m−3), the largest contributing sources to PM2.5 were biomass burning (33%) and FF1 (23%). Moreover, 28% of the ambient mass concentration of OC is apportioned by the AS-rich factor, which is representative of an aged secondary aerosol, reflecting thus the importance of the oxidative processes occurring in a Mediterranean environment.

Item Type: Publication - Article
Digital Object Identifier (DOI):
UKCEH and CEH Sections/Science Areas: Unaffiliated
ISSN: 0169-8095
Additional Keywords: fine particulate matter (PM2.5), comprehensive chemical speciation, source apportionment, constrained PMF analysis, biomass burning, fossil fuel combustion, particulate pollution episodes
NORA Subject Terms: Atmospheric Sciences
Date made live: 21 Aug 2018 13:48 +0 (UTC)

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