RRS "Discovery" Cruise D279, 04 Apr - 10 May 2004. A Transatlantic hydrography section at 24.5N

Cunningham, S.A.. 2005 RRS "Discovery" Cruise D279, 04 Apr - 10 May 2004. A Transatlantic hydrography section at 24.5N. Southampton, UK, Southampton Oceanography Centre, 199pp. (Southampton Oceanography Centre Cruise Report 54)

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The cruise report describes the acquisition and processing of transatlantic hydrographic, velocity, chemistry and other measurements made during three cruises in Spring 2004 at 24.5°N. Measurements were made from shallow water near Africa to shallow water just off Palm Springs beach on the eastern seaboard of the USA. During the principal cruise, RRS Discovery Cruise D279 (4 April to 10 May 2004), 125 full depth CTD and lowered acoustic Doppler current profiler (LADP) stations were completed between the USA and Africa and continuous underway observations were made of currents in the upper 1000m using a ship mounted 75kHz ADP and of surface salinity and temperature. At each station up to 24 water samples were captured for the analysis of oxygen, salinity, nitrate, silicate, phosphate, CFC11, 12, 113 and CCl4 (carbon tetrachloride), discrete total inorganic carbon (TCO2), discrete total alkalinity (TA) and, discrete partial pressure of CO2 (discrete pCO2). Direct, near real-time measurements were also made of the air-sea turbulent fluxes of momentum and sensible and latent heat in addition to various mean meteorological parameters including testing of a new Licor sensor to determine its suitability for making direct measurements of the air-sea CO2 flux. Atmospheric dust samples were gathered on a daily basis. Two prior cruises D277 (26 February to 16 March) and D278 (19 to 30 March) completed 33 full depth CTD/LADP stations in the Florida and Deep Western Boundary Currents, including continuous underway observations of currents in the upper 1000m and of surface salinity and temperature. No LADP or chemistry measurements were made during these cruises. The three cruises provide one CTD and one CTD/LADP transect of the Florida Current, two Florida Current transects at 5knots with the shipboard ADP measuring to the bottom for high accuracy well resolved direct velocity measurements, one section of 16 CTD stations across the Deep Western Boundary Current and a 125 station transatlantic section with a full suite of physical and chemical measurements. The principal scientific objective is to estimate the circulation across 24.5°N, using for the first time, LADP profiles at each station as constraints in an inverse study. Using this circulation and the transatlantic distribution of temperature and other properties we will calculate Atlantic heat and property fluxes. We will also define the size and structure of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (MOC) to compare to results from a recently deployed transatlantic mooring array designed to continuously measure the size and structure of the MOC. The 24.5°N section has now been occupied five times since 1957 (including the 2004 section reported here). Therefore, we will analyse temporal trends of temperature to see if the widely reported warming of the thermocline and intermediate waters and cooling of deep water is continuing. Carbon measurements were also obtained in 1992 and 1998 so this section provides a unique decadal view of anthropogenic carbon fluxes.

Item Type: Publication - Report
Additional Keywords: ADCP, Atlantic Ocean, atmospheric chemistry, carbon tetrachloride, carbon, CFC, circulation, cruise D277 2004, cruise D278 2004, cruise D279 2004, CTD, Discovery, Lowered ADCP, Meridional Overturning Circulation, meteorology, MOC, nutrients, Ocean Surveyor, oxygen, shipboard ADCP
Date made live: 13 Oct 2005 +0 (UTC)

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