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The effect of sampling scheme in the survey of atmospheric deposition of heavy metals in Albania by using moss biomonitoring

Qarri, Flora; Lazo, Pranvera; Bekteshi, Lirim; Stafilov, Trajce; Frontasyeva, Marina; Harmens, Harry. 2015 The effect of sampling scheme in the survey of atmospheric deposition of heavy metals in Albania by using moss biomonitoring. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 22 (3). 2258-2271. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-014-3417-3

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Abstract/Summary

The atmospheric deposition of heavy metals in Albania was investigated by using a carpet-forming moss species (Hypnum cupressiforme) as bioindicator. Sampling was done in the dry seasons of autumn 2010 and summer 2011. Two different sampling schemes are discussed in this paper: a random sampling scheme with 62 sampling sites distributed over the whole territory of Albania and systematic sampling scheme with 44 sampling sites distributed over the same territory. Unwashed, dried samples were totally digested by using microwave digestion, and the concentrations of metal elements were determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) and AAS (Cd and As). Twelve elements, such as conservative and trace elements (Al and Fe and As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Mn, Pb, V, Zn, and Li), were measured in moss samples. Li as typical lithogenic element is also included. The results reflect local emission points. The median concentrations and statistical parameters of elements were discussed by comparing two sampling schemes. The results of both sampling schemes are compared with the results of other European countries. Different levels of the contamination valuated by the respective contamination factor (CF) of each element are obtained for both sampling schemes, while the local emitters identified like ironchromium metallurgy and cement industry, oil refinery, mining industry, and transport have been the same for both sampling schemes. In addition, the natural sources, from the accumulation of these metals in mosses caused by metalenriched soil, associated withwind blowing soils were pointed as another possibility of local emitting factors.

Item Type: Publication - Article
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-014-3417-3
CEH Sections/Science Areas: Emmett
ISSN: 0944-1344
Additional Keywords: air pollution, sampling scheme, metals, moss biomonitoring, ICP-AES, EWMA, multivariate analysis, Albania
NORA Subject Terms: Ecology and Environment
Atmospheric Sciences
Related URLs:
Date made live: 08 Sep 2014 11:17 +0 (UTC)
URI: http://nora.nerc.ac.uk/id/eprint/508335

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