Iodine source apportionment in the Malawian diet

Watts, M.J.; Joy, E.J.M.; Young, S.D.; Broadley, M.R.; Chilimba, A.D.C.; Gibson, R.S.; Siyame, E.W.P.; Kalimbira, A.A.; Chilima, B.; Ander, E.L.. 2015 Iodine source apportionment in the Malawian diet. Scientific Reports, 5, 15251.

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The aim of this study was to characterise nutritional-I status in Malawi. Dietary-I intakes were assessed using new datasets of crop, fish, salt and water-I concentrations, while I status was assessed for 60 women living on each of calcareous and non-calcareous soils as defined by urinary iodine concentration (UIC). Iodine concentration in staple foods was low, with median concentrations of 0.01 mg kg−1 in maize grain, 0.008 mg kg−1 in roots and tubers, but 0.155 mg kg−1 in leafy vegetables. Freshwater fish is a good source of dietary-I with a median concentration of 0.51 mg kg−1. Mean Malawian dietary-Iodine intake from food, excluding salt, was just 7.8 μg d−1 compared to an adult requirement of 150 μg d−1. Despite low dietary-I intake from food, median UICs were 203 μg L−1 with only 12% defined as I deficient whilst 21% exhibited excessive I intake. Iodised salt is likely to be the main source of dietary I intake in Malawi; thus, I nutrition mainly depends on the usage and concentration of I in iodised salt. Drinking water could be a significant source of I in some areas, providing up to 108 μg d−1 based on consumption of 2 L d−1.

Item Type: Publication - Article
Digital Object Identifier (DOI):
ISSN: 2045-2322
Date made live: 09 Feb 2016 14:23 +0 (UTC)

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