Testing WHAM-FTOX with laboratory toxicity data for mixtures of metals (Cu, Zn, Cd, Ag, Pb)

Tipping, Edward ORCID:; Lofts, Stephen ORCID: 2015 Testing WHAM-FTOX with laboratory toxicity data for mixtures of metals (Cu, Zn, Cd, Ag, Pb). Envionmental Toxicology & Chemistry, 34 (4). 788-798.

Before downloading, please read NORA policies.
N509206PP.pdf - Accepted Version

Download (785kB) | Preview


The WHAM-FTOX model describes cation toxicity to aquatic organisms in terms of (a) accumulation by the organism of metabolically-active protons and metals at reversible binding sites, and (b) differing toxic potencies of the bound cations. Cation accumulation (νi in mol g-1) is estimated through calculations with the WHAM chemical speciation model by assuming that organism binding sites can be represented by those of humic acid. Toxicity coefficients (αi) are combined with νi to obtain the variable FTOX ( = ∑ αiνi) which, between lower and upper thresholds (FTOX,LT, FTOX,UT), is linearly related to toxic effect. Values of αi, FTOX,LT and FTOX,LT are obtained by fitting toxicity data. Reasonable fits (72% of variance in toxic effect explained overall) were obtained for four large metal mixture acute toxicity experiments involving daphnids (Cu, Zn, Cd), lettuce (Cu, Zn, Ag) and trout (Zn, Cd, Pb). Strong non-additive effects, most apparent in results for tests involving Cd, could be explained approximately by purely chemical competition for metal accumulation. Tentative interpretation of parameter values obtained from these and other experimental data suggests the following order of bound cation toxicity: H < Al < (Cu Zn Pb UO2) < (Cd Ag). Another trend is a strong increase in Cd toxicity relative to that of Zn, as organism complexity increases (from bacteria to fish).

Item Type: Publication - Article
Digital Object Identifier (DOI):
UKCEH and CEH Sections/Science Areas: Shore
ISSN: 0730-7268
Additional Keywords: metals, mixtures, modelling, toxicity, WHAM-FTOX
NORA Subject Terms: Ecology and Environment
Date made live: 06 Jan 2015 12:22 +0 (UTC)

Actions (login required)

View Item View Item

Document Downloads

Downloads for past 30 days

Downloads per month over past year

More statistics for this item...