Detection and drivers of exposure and effects of pharmaceuticals in higher vertebrates

Shore, Richard F.; Taggart, Mark A.; Smits, Judit; Mateo, Rafael; Richards, Ngaio L.; Fryday, Steve. 2014 Detection and drivers of exposure and effects of pharmaceuticals in higher vertebrates [in special issue: Assessing risks and impacts of pharmaceuticals in the environment on wildlife and ecosystems] Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society (B), 369 (1656), 20130570. 10, pp.

Before downloading, please read NORA policies.
N508712JA.pdf - Published Version
Available under License Creative Commons Attribution.

Download (490kB) | Preview


Pharmaceuticals are highly bioactive compounds now known to be widespread environmental contaminants. However, research regarding exposure and possible effects in non-target higher vertebrate wildlife remains scarce. The fate and behaviour of most pharmaceuticals entering our environment via numerous pathways remain poorly characterized, and hence our conception and understanding of the risks posed to wild animals is equally constrained. The recent decimation of Asian vulture populations owing to a pharmaceutical (diclofenac) offers a notable example, because the exposure route (livestock carcasses) and the acute toxicity observed were completely unexpected. This case not only highlights the need for further research, but also the wider requirement for more considered and comprehensive ‘ecopharmacovigilance’. We discuss known and potential high risk sources and pathways in terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems where pharmaceutical exposure in higher vertebrate wildlife, principally birds and mammals, may occur. We examine whether approaches taken within existing surveillance schemes (that commonly target established classes of persistent or bioaccumulative contaminants) and the risk assessment approaches currently used for pesticides are relevant to pharmaceuticals, and we highlight where new approaches may be required to assess pharmaceutical-related risk.

Item Type: Publication - Article
Digital Object Identifier (DOI):
UKCEH and CEH Sections/Science Areas: Shore
ISSN: 0962-8436
Additional Information. Not used in RCUK Gateway to Research.: Open Access paper - Official URL link provides full text
Additional Keywords: ecopharmacovigilance, wildlife toxicology, environmental monitoring, emerging contaminants, sentinel species, risk assessment
NORA Subject Terms: Ecology and Environment
Date made live: 30 Oct 2014 10:47 +0 (UTC)

Actions (login required)

View Item View Item

Document Downloads

Downloads for past 30 days

Downloads per month over past year

More statistics for this item...