Butcher, Thomas; Brown, Teresa. 2014 Gallium. In: Gunn, Gus, (ed.) Critical metals handbook. Chichester, UK, Wiley, 150-176, 454pp.

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Gallium is produced primarily as a by-product of alumina production from bauxite ores and, to a much lesser extent, from the smelting and refining of zinc from sphalerite. It is also recovered from wastes generated by the manufacture of semiconductor wafers. The largest producers of primary gallium are China, Germany and Kazakhstan while Japan is the largest producer of secondary gallium. The main uses of gallium are primarily in semi-conductors for electronics, although there are a number of other applications. End products include mobile phones, laser emitting diodes (LED), satelite TV, global positioning systems (GPS) and photovoltaics, amongst many others.

Item Type: Publication - Book Section
Digital Object Identifier (DOI):
ISBN: 9780470671719
Additional Keywords: gallium, sources of gallium, recovery methods for gallium, gallium refining, gallium production, gallium specifications, gallium uses, gallium substitution, gallium recycling, environmental issues, gallium resources, gallium production, gallium world trade, gallium prices
NORA Subject Terms: Earth Sciences
Date made live: 24 Jul 2014 14:24 +0 (UTC)

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