How seasonality affects the flow of estrogens and their conjugates in one of Japan’s most populous catchments

Kumar, Vimal; Nakada, Norihide; Yamishita, Naoyuki; Johnson, Andrew C. ORCID:; Tanaka, Hiroaki. 2011 How seasonality affects the flow of estrogens and their conjugates in one of Japan’s most populous catchments. Environmental Pollution, 159 (10). 2906-2912.

Full text not available from this repository.


A detailed study of the free and conjugated estrogen load discharged by the eight major sewage treatment plants into the Yodo River basin, Japan was carried out. Sampling campaigns were focused on the winter and autumn seasons from 2005 to 2008 and the free estrogens estrone (E1), 17β-estradiol (E2), estriol (E3), 17-ethynylestradiol (EE2) as well as the conjugated (sulfate and glucuronide) forms. For both sewage effluent and river water E2 and E1 concentrations were greatest during the winter period (Dec-March). This coincides with the period of lowest rainfall and lowest temperatures in Japan. E1 was the dominant estrogenic component in effluent (means of 10-50 ng/L) followed by E2 (means of 0.5-3 ng/L). The estrogen sulfate conjugates were found intermittently in the 0.5-1.7 ng/L concentration range in the sewage effluents. The greatest estrogen exposure was found to be in the Katsura river tributary which exceeded 1 ng/L E2 equivalents during the winter period.

Item Type: Publication - Article
Digital Object Identifier (DOI):
Programmes: CEH Topics & Objectives 2009 - 2012 > Water > WA Topic 2 - Ecohydrological Processes > WA - 2.1 - Identify and quantify sources, fluxes and pathways of water, chemicals ...
UKCEH and CEH Sections/Science Areas: Acreman
ISSN: 0269-7491
Additional Keywords: Yodo river, free and conjugated estrogen, estrogenicity, E2-equivalents, STPs
NORA Subject Terms: Hydrology
Date made live: 09 Jan 2012 15:10 +0 (UTC)

Actions (login required)

View Item View Item

Document Downloads

Downloads for past 30 days

Downloads per month over past year

More statistics for this item...