Anreicherung atmosphärischer Depositionen von Metallen und Stickstoff in Moosen Mecklenburg-Vorpommerns von 1990 bis 2005. [Accumulation of atmospheric deposition of metals and nitrogen in mosses Mecklenburg-Vorpommern 1990 to 2005]

Genßler, L.; Holy, M.; Pesch, R.; Schröder, W.; Harmens, H.; Ilyin, I.. 2010 Anreicherung atmosphärischer Depositionen von Metallen und Stickstoff in Moosen Mecklenburg-Vorpommerns von 1990 bis 2005. [Accumulation of atmospheric deposition of metals and nitrogen in mosses Mecklenburg-Vorpommern 1990 to 2005]. Umweltwissenschaften und Schadstoff-Forschung, 22. 596-609.

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Background, aim and scope Since 1990 the UN ECE Heavy Metals in Mosses Surveys provide data inventories of the atmospheric heavy metal bioaccumulation across Europe. In the survey 2005 the nitrogen accumulation was measured for the first time in most of the participating countries. In Germany, the surveys were conducted in close cooperation of the relevant authorities of both the Federal Republic and the sixteen states. Therefore, statistical evaluations of the moss survey data with regard to the whole German territory and single federal states are of interest. This article concentrates on Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, dealing with the mapping of the spatiotemporal trends of metal accumulation from 1990 to 2005, the spatial patterns of nitrogen accumulation in 2005, and the spatial variability of bioaccumulation due to characteristics of the sampling sites and their surroundings. Materials and methods The bioaccumulation of up to 40 trace elements in mosses was determined according to a Europe-wide harmonised methodology. The according experimental protocol regulates the selection of sampling sites and moss species, the chemical analysis and quality control and the classification of the measured values for mapping spatial patterns. In Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania all sampling sites were described with regard to topographical and ecological characteristics and several criteria to be fulfilled according to the guideline. Together with the measurements this metadata was combined with other information regarding land use in the surroundings of the sampling sites in the WebGIS MossMet. The spatial structure of the metal bioaccumulation was analysed and modelled by variogram analyses and then mapped by applying different kriging techniques. Furthermore, multi metal indices (MMI) were derived for both the sampling sites and raster maps with help of percentile statistics: The MMI1990–2005 was calculated for As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Ti, V and Zn. The statistical association of the metal bioaccumulation, site specific characteristics as well as information on land use and emissions was analysed by bivariate nonparametric correlation analysis, contingency tables and Chi-square Automatic Interaction Detection (CHAID). Results The results of the quality controlled chemical analyses show a significant decrease of the metal bioaccumulation in Germany from 1990 to 2000 for all elements. However, in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania the concentrations of Cr and Zn are even significantly higher than those found in 1990. From 2000 to 2005 a further non-significant increase can be stated for As, Cu, Ni and Ti. The concentrations of Cd and Pb decreased significantly throughout all four surveys. The MMI illustrates the temporal trend of the metal bioaccumulation as a whole: After a significant decrease from 1990 to 2000 it increased significantly till 2005. The N concentration in mosses in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania reaches from 1.3 to 2.3 % in dry mass and is negatively correlated with the forest ratio in the surroundings of the moss sampling sites and to the same degree positively correlated with the area ratio of agricultural land uses. Except for Cd, Pb and Sb all metal concentrations in the mosses are negatively correlated with the forest ratio around the sampling sites. With the exception of Cr all metal concentrations are further negatively correlated with the precipitation sums of the accumulation periods. Only the Cu and Zn concentrations show no or rather a negative correlation with the tree height whereas all other elements exhibit positive correlations. Furthermore, all elements except Cr are significantly associated to the sampled moss species, the growth pattern and the frequency of occurrence of the mosses at the respective sampling sites. Exemplified for Cu multivariate correlations were furthermore detected by CHAID. It could be shown that the frequency of the mosses, the sampled moss species, the distance to motorways and the distance to the Baltic Sea are the statistically most significant boundary conditions of the Cu concentrations in the mosses sampled in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania in 2005. No correlations were found between the modelled total depositions and the concentrations of Cd, Hg and Pb in the mosses at p < 0.1. For Pb in 1995 r is 0.52 at p = 0.012, for the other surveys no correlations at p < 0.05 could be found. Discussion The increase of the Cr bioaccumulation from 2000 till 2005 is particularly pronounced in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania. This trend is confirmed with regional differences in the national average as well as in other participating countries like in Switzerland. Deposition measurements did not register this trend. In contrast to the UNECE area, the federal territory and several federal states no correlations were found between the modelled total depositions and the metal concentrations in the mosses. Conclusions The fact that no correlations were found between the modelled total depositions and the element concentrations in the mosses may be caused by the low spatial resolution (50 × 50 km) of the EMEP data. The moss surveys contribute to the heavy metal and the multi-component-model of CLRTAP because they prove on different spatial scales how air pollution control influences the accumulation of emitted substances in environmental subjects of protection like vegetation. In contrast to deposition measurement networks the moss monitoring identified a trend reversal in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania: The continuous decrease of the metal bioaccumulation in mosses from 1990 till 2000 has changed to an increase of several metals between 2000 and 2005. This increase is significant for Cr and Zn. Recommendations and perspectives The spatial resolution of the EMEP deposition data should be enhanced based on the Europe-wide regression relationship between the element concentrations in the deposition and in the mosses. For regional studies the existing but so far not useable deposition measurement data of the federal states should be made available. It should further be investigated what caused the increase of the Cr concentrations above the level of 1990 – perhaps emissions or biogenic effects as a consequence of simultaneously increased nitrogen loads? The Heavy Metals in Mosses Surveys are a positive example for environmental monitoring activities reaching across three spatial and administrative levels: regional (e. g. federal state or natural landscape), nation wide (e. g. Germany) and continental (e. g. Europe). In Germany the harmonised and quality controlled moss data are made available via a WebGIS portal. Therefore the moss data may easily be accessed for environmental monitoring purposes and the control of environmental political actions. Hence, the continuous task of environmental monitoring can be met and carried on in the future. It should further be considered to expand the moss monitoring on the survey of persistent organic pollutants and apply it in human-biomonitoring. This would facilitate the acquisition of indoor and outdoor pollution with the same receptor.

Item Type: Publication - Article
Digital Object Identifier (DOI):
Programmes: CEH Topics & Objectives 2009 - 2012 > Biogeochemistry > BGC Topic 3 - Managing Threats to Environment and Health > BGC - 3.3 - Deliver effective advice, models and applied science ...
UKCEH and CEH Sections/Science Areas: Emmett
Additional Keywords: bioaccumulation, CHAID, EMEP modelled total deposition Cd, Hg, Pb, geostatistics, heavy metals, predicted environmental concentration, nitrogen
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Date made live: 26 Jan 2011 10:23 +0 (UTC)

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