Deep to shallow-marine sedimentology and impact of volcanism within the Middle Triassic Palaeo-Tethyan Semantan Basin, Singapore

Dodd, Thomas J.H.; Leslie, A. Graham; Gillespie, Martin R.; Dobbs, Marcus R.; Bide, Thomas P.; Kendall, Rhian S.; Kearsey, Timothy I.; Chiam, Kiefer; Goay, Michael. 2020 Deep to shallow-marine sedimentology and impact of volcanism within the Middle Triassic Palaeo-Tethyan Semantan Basin, Singapore. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 196, 104371.

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The Middle Triassic Pulau Ayer Chawan Formation is a predominantly deep-marine, occasionally shallow-marine sedimentary succession, deposited in the Singapore sector of the Palaeo-Tethyan Semantan Basin. The formation provides an important record of the dynamic interplay between a siliciclastic sedimentary system and the products of an adjacent active volcanic arc. It is characterised by six sub-environments, including: deep-marine turbidite fan, deep-marine background sedimentation, subaqueous debris cone, shallow-marine, volcanically-sourced turbidite fan, and hyaloclastite mound or ridge. Turbidite fan deposits preserve the input of both siliciclastic and volcaniclastic sediments from the shelf, transported into the deep-marine environment by a suite of subaqueous sediment gravity flow processes, including: turbidity currents; mixed flow types (hybrid event beds); concentrated and hyper concentrated sediment gravity flows, and debris flows. Thick heterolithic successions of debrites were likely sourced through regular collapse of an unstable shelf. The presence of hybrid event beds, encountered within the deep-marine turbidite fans, supports a slope that was out-of-grade, and may have been actively retreating towards the hinterland. Together, these factors suggest regional-scale uplift of the eastern margins of the Semantan Basin during Triassic times, most likely facilitated through volcanic activity in the adjacent Palaeo-Tethys Sukhothai Arc. Evidence for contemporaneous, arc-related magmatism includes ubiquitous volcaniclastic sedimentary rocks within formation, including pyroclastic density current deposits and perhaps more-strikingly through the hyaloclastites of the Nanyang Member. The hyaloclastites formed through quenching of magmas delivered into the deep-marine setting from a series of sub-sea vents or mounds.

Item Type: Publication - Article
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ISSN: 13679120
Date made live: 09 Jun 2020 10:38 +0 (UTC)

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