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Text mining reveals ocean redox events

Emmings, Joe ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2084-0501; Walsh, Joanna; Condon, Daniel; Ross, Ian; Poulton, Simon; Peters, Shanan. 2019 Text mining reveals ocean redox events. [Lecture] In: The Micropalaeontology Society AGM 2019 Biostratigraphy: a 21st Century Science, British Geological Survey, Keyworth, 13-14 Nov. 2019. (Unpublished)

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Abstract/Summary

Text mining reveals ocean redox events J. Emmings1, 2*, J. Walsh1, D. Condon1, I. Ross3, S. Poulton4 1 British Geological Survey, Keyworth, Nottingham, UK 2 School of Geography, Geology and the Environment, University of Leicester, Leicester, UK 3 Center for High Throughput Computing, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, USA 4 School of Earth and Environment, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK The redox state of the oceans exerted a key control the evolution and diversity of life (e.g., Anbar, 2008) and the distribution of black shale resources through time. Here we implement the GeoDeepDive digital library and machine reading system (https://geodeepdive.org/) in order to delineate ocean redox events through geological time. At time of analysis, the GeoDeepDive library contained 10,661,918 published documents, including most content from publishers such as Elsevier and Wiley. We executed an algorithm in order to decompose sentences into speech and linguistic components using Stanford natural language processing (CoreNLP; Manning et al., 2014). This algorithm is used to define the changing proportion of pyrite-bearing rocks through geological time (sensu. Peters et al., 2017). 838 documents in the GeoDeepDive library contain target phases such as ‘pyrite concretions’, ‘pyrite nodules’ and ‘pyrite framboids’. 1154 target phrases were linked via an application programming interface (API) to 191 stratigraphic packages recorded in the Macrostrat database (Peters, 2006; Peters and Husson, 2018). Stratigraphic packages in North America, the Caribbean, New Zealand, the deep sea and parts of Central and South America are subdivided into ‘units’ containing lithological and environment of deposition attributes. Stratigraphic data also derive from the British Geological Survey and Geoscience Australia stratigraphic lexicons. Pyrite abundance is defined as the proportion of concretionary/nodular or framboidal pyrite-bearing lithostratigraphic packages. An alternative assessment, limited to the marine and sedimentary unit record, tested for potential bias due to changing rock type abundance through time. Manual assessment shows most pyrite mentions derive from the sedimentary rock record. Thus pyrite types are interpreted primarily as a proxy for bottom-water and/or pore-water conditions. Concretionary and nodular pyrite precipitate under advective or stagnant (poly)sulfidic conditions. Pyrite framboids precipitate from fluids supersaturated in reduced sulfur, a reaction that is catalysed by sulfate-reducing bacteria in the marine environment (e.g., Rickard, 2012). The pyrite record delineates the widely recognised key redox events, such as; the Great Oxidation Event (Holland, 2002); onset of ferruginous global ocean conditions at the start of the Neoproterozoic (Canfield et al., 2008), and; Phanerozoic ‘ocean anoxic events’ (OAEs), for example during the Permian-Triassic transition (Wignall and Twitchett, 1996) and Early Toarcian (Jurassic) OAE (Jenkyns, 2010). The ratio of pyrite concretion/nodule-bearing rocks versus framboid-bearing rocks may delineate fundamental changes to element cycling (iron, sulfur, redox-sensitive trace metals) in the marine environment. This is important for understanding hydrocarbon and mineral systems through geological time. Keywords: pyrite; shale; redox; machine; reading; GeoDeepDive; Macrostrat References Anbar, A.D. (2008) Elements and Evolution. Science 322, 1481-1483. Canfield, D.E., Poulton, S.W., Knoll, A.H., Narbonne, G.M., Ross, G., Goldberg, T. and Strauss, H. (2008) Ferruginous Conditions Dominated Later Neoproterozoic Deep-Water Chemistry. Science 321, 949-952. Holland, H.D. (2002) Volcanic gases, black smokers, and the great oxidation event. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 66, 3811-3826. Jenkyns, H.C. (2010) Geochemistry of oceanic anoxic events. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems 11. Manning, C.D., Surdeanu, M., Bauer, J., Finkel, J., Bethard, S.J. and McClosky, D. (2014) The Stanford CoreNLP natural language processing toolkit, Proceedings of the 52nd Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics, pp. 55-60. Peters, S.E. (2006) Macrostratigraphy of North America. The Journal of Geology 114, 391-412. Peters, S.E. and Husson, J. (2018) We need a global comprehensive stratigraphic database: here’s a start. The Sedimentary Record 16, 4-9. Peters, S.E., Husson, J.M. and Wilcots, J. (2017) The rise and fall of stromatolites in shallow marine environments. Geology 45, 487-490. Rickard, D. (2012) Chapter 6 - Sedimentary Pyrite, in: David, R. (Ed.), Developments in Sedimentology. Elsevier, pp. 233-285. Wignall, P.B. and Twitchett, R.J. (1996) Oceanic Anoxia and the End Permian Mass Extinction. Science 272, 1155-1158.

Item Type: Publication - Conference Item (Lecture)
NORA Subject Terms: Earth Sciences
Data and Information
Date made live: 21 Nov 2019 10:03 +0 (UTC)
URI: http://nora.nerc.ac.uk/id/eprint/525889

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