Nonlinear and synergistic effects of ULF Pc5, VLF chorus, and EMIC waves on relativistic electron flux at geosynchronous orbit

Simms, Laura E.; Engebretson, Mark J.; Clilverd, Mark A. ORCID:; Rodger, Craig J.; Reeves, Geoffrey D.. 2018 Nonlinear and synergistic effects of ULF Pc5, VLF chorus, and EMIC waves on relativistic electron flux at geosynchronous orbit. Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, 123 (6). 4755-4766.

Before downloading, please read NORA policies.
©2018. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.
Simms_et_al-2018-Journal_of_Geophysical_Research__Space_Physics (1).pdf - Published Version

Download (2MB) | Preview


Using data covering the years 2005‐2009, we study the linear and nonlinear responses of log10 relativistic electron flux measured at geosynchronous orbit to ULF Pc5, VLF lower band chorus, and EMIC waves. We use regression models incorporating a quadratic term and a synergistic interaction term. Relativistic electron fluxes respond to ULF Pc5 and VLF chorus waves both linearly and nonlinearly. ULF Pc5 waves contribute both to electron enhancement (at mid‐range wave activity) and loss (at high levels of wave activity). Nonlinear effects of VLF chorus are positive (i.e., cause acceleration), adding to the positive linear effects. Synergistic interaction effects between high levels of VLF chorus and mid‐range values of ULF Pc5 waves result in more electron acceleration than would be predicted by a simpler additive model. Similarly, the negative effect of EMIC waves (losses) is more influential than would be predicted by a linear model when combined with either VLF chorus or ULF Pc5 waves. During disturbed conditions (high Kp), geostationary electron flux responds more strongly to the same levels of ULF Pc5 and VLF chorus waves. This flux also responds more to ULF Pc5 and chorus waves during southward Bz conditions. Unstandardized regression coefficients for models incorporating nonlinear and synergistic effects of waves are presented for use in future modelling.

Item Type: Publication - Article
Digital Object Identifier (DOI):
ISSN: 21699380
Additional Keywords: nonlinear effects of waves on electrons, synergistic effects of waves, effect of ULF Pc5 waves on electrons, effect of EMIC waves on electrons, empirical prediction models
Date made live: 25 Apr 2018 09:09 +0 (UTC)

Actions (login required)

View Item View Item

Document Downloads

Downloads for past 30 days

Downloads per month over past year

More statistics for this item...