Effects of five sulphonamides on duckweed (Lemna minor) after prolonged exposure time and their dependency on photoradiation

Bialk-Bielinska, Anna; Matzke, Marianne; Caban, Magda; Stolte, Stefan; Kumirska, Jolanta; Stepnowski, Piotr. 2018 Effects of five sulphonamides on duckweed (Lemna minor) after prolonged exposure time and their dependency on photoradiation. Science of the Total Environment, 618. 952-960.

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Sulphonamides (SAs) are one of the most commonly used veterinary drugs and therefore their residues are regularly found in the environment. So far scientific attention has mostly been paid to the evaluation of their acute ecotoxicological effects with data on long-term effects for non-target organisms still largely missing. Therefore, the main aim of this study was to evaluate the potential toxicities of five sulphonamides to duckweed (Lemna minor) after prolonged exposure time (14 days). To elucidate whether their phytotoxic effects result from potential photodegradation products, the toxicity of standard solutions of selected sulphonamides was also investigated in a standard 7-day test but after irradiation (by keeping them under the test conditions) for the selected time (after 7 and 14 days). The ecotoxicological tests were accompanied by chemical analyses to be able to link the observed effects to the concentrations and nature of the exposed compounds. The results showed a shift in the toxicity of SAs: a strong decrease in toxicity for the two most toxic sulphonamides (sulphamethoxazole and sulphadimethoxine) and a slight increase in toxicity for three other SAs (sulphadimidine, sulphathiazole, sulphamerazine) in the prolonged test. However, a decrease in the toxicity and concentration of all the SAs was observed when stock solutions were irradiated prior to the toxicity experiment, which suggests that the observed effects towards L. minor of five SAs in the prolonged test cannot be directly associated with the degradation of these compounds under the test conditions but with their different mode of toxic action towards these organisms.

Item Type: Publication - Article
Digital Object Identifier (DOI):
CEH Sections/Science Areas: Pollution (Science Area 2017-)
ISSN: 0048-9697
Additional Keywords: chronic toxicity, sulphonamides, Lemna minor, aquatic organisms, photodegradation
NORA Subject Terms: Ecology and Environment
Date made live: 13 Dec 2017 16:20 +0 (UTC)

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