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New multibeam mapping and geochemistry of the 30°–35° S sector, and overview, of southern Kermadec arc volcanism

Wright, I.C.; Worthington, T.J.; Gamble, J.A.. 2006 New multibeam mapping and geochemistry of the 30°–35° S sector, and overview, of southern Kermadec arc volcanism. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 149 (3-4). 263-296. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2005.03.021

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Abstract/Summary

New multibeam mapping and whole-rock geochemistry establish the first order definition of the modern submarine Kermadec arc between 30° and 35° S. Twenty-two volcanoes with basal diameters > 5 km are newly discovered or fully-mapped for the first time; Giggenbach, Macauley, Havre, Haungaroa, Kuiwai, Ngatoroirangi, Sonne, Kibblewhite and Yokosuka. For each large volcano, edifice morphology and structure, surficial deposits, lava fields, distribution of sector collapses, and lava compositions are determined. Macauley and Havre are large silicic intra-oceanic caldera complexes. For both, concentric ridges on the outer flanks are interpreted as recording mega-bedforms associated with pyroclastic density flows and edifice foundering. Other stratovolcanoes reveal complex histories, with repeated cycles of tectonically controlled construction and sector collapse, extensive basaltic flow fields, and the development of summit craters and/or small nested calderas. Combined with existing data for the southernmost arc segment, we provide an overview of the spatial distribution and magmatic heterogeneity along 780 km of the Kermadec arc at 30°–36°30′ S. Coincident changes in arc elevation and lava composition define three volcano–tectonic segments. A central deeper segment at 32°20′–34°10′ S has basement elevations of > 3200 m water-depth, and relatively simple stratovolcanoes dominated by low-K series, basalt–basaltic andesite. In contrast, the adjoining arc segments have higher basement elevations (typically < 2500 m water-depth), multi-vent volcanic centres including caldera complexes, and erupt sub-equal proportions of dacite and basalt–basaltic andesite. The association of silicic magmas with higher basement elevations (and hence thicker crust), coupled with significant inter- and intra-volcano heterogeneity of the silicic lavas, but not the mafic lavas, is interpreted as evidence for dehydration melting of the sub-arc crust. Conversely, the crust beneath the deeper arc segments is thinner, initially cooler, and has not yet reached the thermal requirements for anatexis. Silicic calderas with diameters > 3 km coincide with the shallower arc segments. The dominant mode of large caldera formation is interpreted as mass-discharge pyroclastic eruption with syn-eruptive collapse. Hence, the shallower arc segments are characterized by both the generation of volatile-enriched magmas from crustal melting and a reduced hydrostatic load, allowing magma vesiculation and fragmentation to initiate and sustain pyroclastic eruptions. Proposed initiation parameters for submarine pyroclastic eruptions are water-depths < 1000 m, magmas with 5–6 wt.% water and > 70 wt.% SiO2, and a high discharge rate.

Item Type: Publication - Article
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2005.03.021
ISSN: 0377-0273
Additional Keywords: submarine stratovolcanoes; Kermadec arc; intra-oceanic arc; silicic magmatism
Date made live: 24 Jul 2008 +0 (UTC)
URI: http://nora.nerc.ac.uk/id/eprint/155129

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