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The European carbon balance. Part 4: integration of carbon and other trace-gas fluxes

Schulze, E.D.; Ciais, P.; Luyssaert, S.; Schrumpf, M.; Janssens, I.A.; Thiruchittampalam, B.; Theloke, J.; Saurat, M.; Bringezu, S.; Lelieveld, J.; Lohila, A.; Rebmann, C.; Jung, M.; Bastviken, D.; Abril, G.; Grassi, G; Leip, A.; Freibauer, A.; Kutsch, W.; Don, A.; Nieschulze, J.; Borner, A.; Gash, J.H.; Dolman, A.J.. 2010 The European carbon balance. Part 4: integration of carbon and other trace-gas fluxes. Global Change Biology, 16 (5). 1451-1469. 10.1111/j.1365-2486.2010.02215.x

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Abstract/Summary

Overviewing the European carbon (C), greenhouse gas (GHG), and non-GHG fluxes, gross primary productivity (GPP) is about 9.3 Pg yr−1, and fossil fuel imports are 1.6 Pg yr−1. GPP is about 1.25% of solar radiation, containing about 360 × 1018 J energy – five times the energy content of annual fossil fuel use. Net primary production (NPP) is 50%, terrestrial net biome productivity, NBP, 3%, and the net GHG balance, NGB, 0.3% of GPP. Human harvest uses 20% of NPP or 10% of GPP, or alternatively 1‰ of solar radiation after accounting for the inherent cost of agriculture and forestry, for production of pesticides and fertilizer, the return of organic fertilizer, and for the C equivalent cost of GHG emissions. C equivalents are defined on a global warming potential with a 100-year time horizon. The equivalent of about 2.4% of the mineral fertilizer input is emitted as N2O. Agricultural emissions to the atmosphere are about 40% of total methane, 60% of total NO-N, 70% of total N2O-N, and 95% of total NH3-N emissions of Europe. European soils are a net C sink (114 Tg yr−1), but considering the emissions of GHGs, soils are a source of about 26 Tg CO2 C-equivalent yr−1. Forest, grassland and sediment C sinks are offset by GHG emissions from croplands, peatlands and inland waters. Non-GHGs (NH3, NOx) interact significantly with the GHG and the C cycle through ammonium nitrate aerosols and dry deposition. Wet deposition of nitrogen (N) supports about 50% of forest timber growth. Land use change is regionally important. The absolute flux values total about 50 Tg C yr−1. Nevertheless, for the European trace-gas balance, land-use intensity is more important than land-use change. This study shows that emissions of GHGs and non-GHGs significantly distort the C cycle and eliminate apparent C sinks.

Item Type: Publication - Article
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): 10.1111/j.1365-2486.2010.02215.x
Programmes: CEH Topics & Objectives 2009 - 2012 > Biogeochemistry > BGC Topic 2 - Biogeochemistry and Climate System Processes > BGC - 2.2 - Measure and model surface atmosphere exchanges of energy ...
CEH Sections: Harding (to July 2011)
ISSN: 1354-1013
Additional Information. Not used in RCUK Gateway to Research.: An error was published in this paper as the global rather than the regional NO-fluxes were listed. The estimated NO-fluxes from soils should be 0.70 to 1.04 +/- 0.14 Tg year-1 for geographic Europe (J. Steinkamp and M.G. Lawrence: Improvement and evaluation of simulated global biogenic soil NO emissions in an AC-GCM. ACPD in review). See Corrigendum in: Global Change Biology (2010) 16, 2399, doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2486.2010.02252.x
NORA Subject Terms: Earth Sciences
Date made live: 23 Jun 2010 08:56
URI: http://nora.nerc.ac.uk/id/eprint/9910

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