Groundwater evolution beneath Hat Yai, a rapidly developing city in Thailand
Lawrence, A.; Gooddy, Daren; Kanatharana, P.; Meesilp, W.; Ramnarong, V.. 2000 Groundwater evolution beneath Hat Yai, a rapidly developing city in Thailand. Hydrogeology Journal, 8 (5). 564-575. 10.1007/s100400000098Before downloading, please read NORA policies.
Many cities and towns in South and Southeast Asia are unsewered, and urban wastewaters are often discharged either directly to the ground or to surface-water canals and channels. This practice can result in widespread contamination of the shallow groundwater. In Hat Yai, southern Thailand, seepage of urban wastewaters has produced substantial deterioration in the quality of the shallow groundwater directly beneath the city. For this reason, the majority of the potable water supply is obtained from groundwater in deeper semi-confined aquifers 30-50 m below the surface. However, downward leakage of shallow groundwater from beneath the city is a significant component of recharge to the deeper aquifer, which has long-term implications for water quality. Results from cored boreholes and shallow nested piezometers are presented. The combination of high organic content of the urban recharge and the shallow depth to the water table has produced strongly reducing conditions in the upper layer and the mobilisation of arsenic. A simple analytical model shows that time scales for downward leakage, from the surface through the upper aquitard to the semi-confined aquifer, are of the order of several decades.
|Programmes:||BGS Programmes > Groundwater Management|
|Additional Keywords:||GroundwaterBGS, Groundwater, International development, Groundwater and health|
|NORA Subject Terms:||Hydrology
|Date made live:||23 Jul 2009 08:22|
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