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The relative risk and its distribution of endocrine disrupting chemicals, pharmaceuticals and personal care products to freshwater organisms in the Bohai Rim, China

Zhang, Meng; Shi, Yajuan; Lu, Yonglong; Johnson, Andrew C.; Sarvajayakesavalu, Suriyanarayanan; Liu, Zhaoyang; Su, Chao; Zhang, Yueqing; Juergens, Monika D.; Jin, Xiaowei. 2017 The relative risk and its distribution of endocrine disrupting chemicals, pharmaceuticals and personal care products to freshwater organisms in the Bohai Rim, China. Science of the Total Environment, 590-591. 633-642. 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.03.011

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Abstract/Summary

In this study, the risks to aquatic organisms posed by 12 commonly detected pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) and endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) that are extensively used in Bohai coastal region of China were examined. These were linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS), nonylphenol (NP), diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), norfloxacin (NOR), sulfamethoxazole (SMX), erythromycin (ERY), bisphenol A (BPA), ofloxacin (OFL), carbamazepine (CBZ), naproxen (NPX), atenolol (ATL) and metoprolol (MET). Their relative risk was ranked based on the proximity between the medians of the reported effect concentrations and measured river or lake water concentrations. The surfactants (LAS) and endocrine disrupting chemicals NP (a breakdown product of the surfactant nonylphenol polyethoxylate) and DEHP (a plasticizer) were identified as posing the greatest risk from this range of chemicals. LAS had a hundred-fold higher risk than any of the pharmaceuticals. The highest risk ranked pharmaceuticals were all antibiotics. Zinc (Zn) and mercury (Hg) were added to the comparison as representative heavy metals. Zn posed a risk higher than all the organics. The risk posed by Hg was less than the surfactants but greater than the selected pharmaceuticals. Whereas LAS and DEHP could cause harmful effects to all the wildlife groups, NP and BPA posed the greatest risk to fish. Antibiotics showed the highest risk to algae. Spatial and temporal distributions of PPCPs and EDCs were conducted for risk identification, source analysis and seasonal change exploration. Municipal sewage effluent linked to urban areas was considered to be the major source of pharmaceuticals. With regard to seasonal influence the risk posed by LAS to the aquatic organisms was significantly affected by wet and dry seasonal change. The dilution effects were the common feature of LAS and ERY risks. The difference in LAS and ERY risk patterns along the rivers was mainly affected by the elimination process.

Item Type: Publication - Article
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.03.011
CEH Sections: Rees (from October 2014)
ISSN: 0048-9697
Additional Keywords: pharmaceuticals, personal care products, endocrine disrupting chemicals, risk ranking, Bohai coastal region
NORA Subject Terms: Ecology and Environment
Date made live: 29 Mar 2017 14:36 +0 (UTC)
URI: http://nora.nerc.ac.uk/id/eprint/516700

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