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The Belgammel Ram, a Hellenistic-Roman BronzeProembolionFound off the Coast of Libya: test analysis of function, date and metallurgy, with a digital reference archive

Adams, Jonathan R.; Antoniadou, Annita; Hunt, Chistopher O.; Bennett, Paul; Croudace, Ian W.; Taylor, Rex N.; Pearce, Richard B.; Earl, Graeme P.; Flemming, Nicholas C.; Moggeridge, John; Whiteside, Timothy; Oliver, Kenneth; Parker, Anthony J.. 2012 The Belgammel Ram, a Hellenistic-Roman BronzeProembolionFound off the Coast of Libya: test analysis of function, date and metallurgy, with a digital reference archive. International Journal of Nautical Archaeology, 42 (1). 60-75. 10.1111/1095-9270.12001

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Abstract/Summary

The Belgammel Ram was found off the coast of Libya in 1964, and examined during 2008–9. The following techniques were used: surface non-contact digitizing using a laser scanner, reflectance transformation imaging using polynomial texture mapping and hemi-spherical harmonics, digital photogrammetry with dense surface modelling, structured light optical scanning, and X-ray fluorescence analysis. For internal structure the ram was examined by X-radiography and 3-D X-ray tomography. Metallurgical composition was studied by micro-drilling and subjecting the samples to scanning electron microscope X-ray micro-analysis, micro X-ray fluorescence and X-ray backscatter. The lead isotope composition was analysed. The alloy has average percentage composition Cu = 86.9, Sn = 6.3, Pb = 6.6, and Zn = < 0.10. The Belgammel Ram is probably a Hellenistic-Roman proembolion from a small military vessel or tesseraria. The archived data are at the Faculty of Engineering and Environment, Engineering Sciences, Material Data Centre, University of Southampton (muvis@soton.ac.uk).

Item Type: Publication - Article
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): 10.1111/1095-9270.12001
ISSN: 10572414
Additional Keywords: Bronze ram; Hellenistic-Roman; proembolion; Libya; Fitzwilliam; Belgammel
Date made live: 10 Oct 2013 16:08 +0 (UTC)
URI: http://nora.nerc.ac.uk/id/eprint/503467

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