Micrometeorological measurements of the urban heat budget and CO2 emissions on a city scale
Nemitz, Eiko; Hargreaves, Kenneth J.; McDonald, Alan G.; Dorsey, James R.; Fowler, David. 2002 Micrometeorological measurements of the urban heat budget and CO2 emissions on a city scale. Environmental Science & Technology, 36 (14). 3139-3146. 10.1021/es010277eFull text not available from this repository.
Direct measurements of urban CO2 emissions and heat fluxes are presented, made using the eddy covariance technique. The measurements were made from the top of a tower, approximately 65 m above the street level of Edinburgh, Scotland, and the fluxes are representative of footprint source areas of several square kilometers. The application of a stationarity test and spectral analysis techniques shows that, at this height, the stationarity criterion for eddy covariance is fulfilled for wind directions from the city center for 93% of the time, while for other wind directions this declines to 59%, demonstrating that pollutant fluxes from urban areas can be measured. The average CO2 emission from the city center was 26 mol m-2 s-1 (10 kt of C km-2 yr-1), with typical daytime peaks of 50-75 and nighttime values of 10 mol m-2 s-1. The correlation between CO2 emission and traffic flow is highly significant, while residential and institutional heating with natural gas are estimated to contribute about 39% to the emissions during the day and 64% at night. An analysis of the energy budget shows that, during the autumn, fossil fuel combustion within the city contributed one-third of the daily anthropogenic energy input of 3.8 MJ m-2 d-1, with the remainder coming from other energy sources, dominated by electricity. Conversely, the total energy input in late spring (May/June) was found to be approximately half this value.
|Item Type:||Publication - Article|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||10.1021/es010277e|
|Programmes:||CEH Programmes pre-2009 publications > Biogeochemistry > BG01 Measuring and modelling trace gas, aerosol and carbon|
|CEH Sections:||_ Atmospheric Sciences
|NORA Subject Terms:||Meteorology and Climatology
Ecology and Environment
|Date made live:||11 Aug 2008 10:02|
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