A health risk assessment for fluoride in Central Europe
Fordyce, Fiona; Vrana, K.; Zhovinsky, E.; Povoroznuk, V.; Toth, G.; Hope, B.C.; Iljinsky, U.; Baker, J.. 2007 A health risk assessment for fluoride in Central Europe. Environmental Geochemistry and Health, 29 (2). 83-102. 10.1007/s10653-006-9076-7Before downloading, please read NORA policies.
Like many elements, fluorine (which generally occurs in nature as fluoride) is beneficial to human health in trace amounts, but can be toxic in excess. The links between low intakes of fluoride and dental protection are well known; however, fluoride is a powerful calcium-seeking element and can interfere with the calcified structure of bones and teeth in the human body at higher concentrations causing dental or skeletal fluorosis. One of the main exposure routes is via drinking water and the World Health Organisation currently sets water quality guidelines for the element. In Central Europe, groundwater resources that exceed the guideline value of 1.5 mg l-1 are widespread and effects on health of high fluoride in water have been reported. The aim of the current project was to develop a geographic information system (GIS) to aid the identification of areas where high-fluoride waters and fluorosis may be a problem; hence, where water treatment technologies should be targeted. The development of the GIS was based upon the collation and digitisation of existing information relevant to fluoride risk in Ukraine, Moldova, Hungary and Slovakia assembled for the first time in a readily accessible form. In addition, geochemistry and health studies to examine in more detail the relationships between high-fluoride drinking waters and health effects in the population were carried out in Moldova and Ukraine demonstrating dental fluorosis prevalence rates of 60–90% in adolescents consuming water containing 2–7 mg l-1 fluoride.
|Item Type:||Publication - Article|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||10.1007/s10653-006-9076-7|
|Programmes:||BGS Programmes > Chemical and Biological Hazards|
|Additional Keywords:||Health, Central Europe, Fluoride, Risk assessment, Hungary, Moldova, Slovakia, Ukraine, Water|
|NORA Subject Terms:||Earth Sciences|
|Date made live:||16 Sep 2008 08:50|
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