Immunomodulatory arsenal of nymphal ticks
Peterková, K.; Vančová, I.; Hajnická, V.; Slovák, M.; Šimo, L.; Nuttall, P. A.. 2008 Immunomodulatory arsenal of nymphal ticks. Medical and Veterinary Entomology, 22 (2). 167-171. 10.1111/j.1365-2915.2008.00726.xBefore downloading, please read NORA policies.
Text (Uncorrected proof)
Ticks have developed their own immunomodulatory mechanisms to inhibit the host inflammatory response. One of them involves the ability to subvert the cytokine network at the site of tick feeding by secreting cytokine binding molecules. Most studies have focused on the immunomodulatory prowess of adult female ticks. Here we describe anti-cytokine activity in salivary gland extracts (SGEs) prepared from 2-day-fed nymphs of Dermacentor reticulatus Fabricius, Ixodes ricinus L., Rhipicephalus appendiculatus Neumann and Amblyomma variegatum Fabricius. Anti-CXCL8 activity was detected in nymphs of all species. Relatively high activity against CCL2, CCL3 and CCL11 was observed in SGEs of R. appendiculatus and A. variegatum nymphs, whereas SGEs of I. ricinus nymphs showed comparatively high anti-interleukin-2 (-IL-2) and anti-IL-4 activities. These data show that nymphs, which epidemiologically are usually more important than adults as disease vectors, possess a range of anti-cytokine activities that may facilitate pathogen transmission.
|Programmes:||CEH Programmes pre-2009 publications > Biodiversity > BD01 Conservation and Restoration of Biodiversity|
|Additional Information:||The definitive version is available at www.blackwell-synergy.com|
|Additional Keywords:||Cytokine inhibitors, Ixodid ticks, nymph salivary glands|
|NORA Subject Terms:||Biology and Microbiology|
|Date made live:||24 Jun 2008 15:07|
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