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Metallakkumulation in Moosen: Standörtliche und regionale Randbedingungen des Biomonitoring von Luftverunreinigungen [Metal accumulation in mosses: local and regional boundary conditions of biomonitoring air pollution]

Schroder, Winfried; Englert, Codula; Pesch, Roland; Zechmeister, Harald G.; Thoni, Lotti; Suchara, Ivan; Mankovska, Blanka; Jeran, Zvonka; Harmens, Harry; Godzinska, Krystyna; Alber, Renate. 2008 Metallakkumulation in Moosen: Standörtliche und regionale Randbedingungen des Biomonitoring von Luftverunreinigungen [Metal accumulation in mosses: local and regional boundary conditions of biomonitoring air pollution]. Umweltwissenschaften und Schadstoff-Forschung - Zeitschrift für Umweltchemie und Ökotoxikologie, 20 (2). 120-132. 10.1065/uwsf20072007.08.209

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[img] Text (Pre-Print Title: Was außer der atmosphärischen Deposition beeinflusst die Stoffakkumulation in Moosen?)
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Abstract/Summary

Metal accumulation in mosses: Local and regional boundary conditions of biomonitoring air pollution Goal and Scope. Several studies show that the concentration of metals in mosses depends not only on metal deposition but also on factors such as moss species, canopy drip, precipitation, altitude, distance to the sea and the analytical technique used. However, contrasting results have been reported and the interpretation of the spatial variability of the metal accumulation in mosses remains difficult. In the presented study existing monitoring data from the European Heavy Metals in Mosses Surveys together with surface data on precipitation, elevation and land use are statistically analysed to assess factors other than emissions that have an influence on the metal accumulation in the mosses. Main Features. Inference statistics and Spearman correlation analysis were applied to examine the association of the metal accumulation and the distance of the monitoring sites to the sea as well as the altitude. Whether or not significant differences of the metal loads in the mosses exist at national borders was examined with help of the U-test after Mann and Whitney. In order to identify and rank the factors that are assumed to have an influence on the metal uptake of the mosses Classification and Regression Trees (CART) were applied. Results. No clear tendency could be derived from the results of the inference statistical calculations and the correlation analyses with regard to the distance of the monitoring site to the sea and the altitude. According to the results of the CART-analyses mainly the moss species, potential emission sources around the monitoring sites, canopy drip and precipitation have an effect on the metal bioaccumulation. Assuming that each participating country followed strictly the manual for sampling and sample preparation the results of the inference statistical calculations furthermore suggest that in most cases different techniques for digestion and analysis bias the measurements significantly. Discussion. For the first time a national monitoring data base consisting of measurement data and metadata as well as surface information on precipitation, land use and elevation was applied to examine influence factors on the metal bioaccumulation in mosses. The respective results mirror existing knowledge from other national studies to a large extend, although further analyses are necessary to affirm the findings. These analyses should include data from other national monitoring programmes and should additionally be carried out with other decision tree algorithms than CART. Conclusions. The local variability in the metal concentration in mosses can be uncovered in terms of predictors or underlying hidden causes by using CART. Ideally, such an approach should be applied across the whole of Europe. This will only be feasible if all participating countries provide additional information about site characteristics as currently is done in for example the German moss surveys. Recommendations. The UNECE Metals in Mosses Survey experimental protocol should be improved in order to reduce the observed influences, to enhance standardisation, and to strengthen the quality control. This implies the integration of sampling site describing metadata into the assessment. Furthermore, basis research is needed to test the hypothesis concerning moss speciesspecific accumulation of depositions. Perspectives. Provided that the presented results hold true in further analyses correction factors should be applied on the moss data in order to get the depicted spatial patterns and temporal trends of metal bioaccumulation unbiased. Such factors should be calculated for natural landscape units or ecoregions that are homogeneous with regard to climate, vegetation and altitude

Item Type: Publication - Article
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): 10.1065/uwsf20072007.08.209
Programmes: CEH Programmes pre-2009 publications > Biogeochemistry > BG03 Quantifying the growing threat to plant and human health from ground level ozone > BG03.1 Field Studies of Ozone Effects on Semi-Natural Vegetation
CEH Sections: Emmett
ISSN: 0934-3504
Additional Information. Not used in RCUK Gateway to Research.: Text in German. Preprint has title: Was außer der atmosphärischen Deposition beeinflusst die Stoffakkumulation in Moosen? [What other than atmospheric deposition influences the bioaccumulation of substances in mosses?]
Additional Keywords: Air pollutants, bioindication, bryophytes, boundary conditions, CART, metals mosses
NORA Subject Terms: Ecology and Environment
Atmospheric Sciences
Date made live: 21 Apr 2008 14:50
URI: http://nora.nerc.ac.uk/id/eprint/2803

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