The development and multiple uses of a standardised bioassay method to select hypocrealean fungi for biological control of aphids
Hesketh, Helen; Alderson, Peter G.; Pye, Barry J.; Pell, Judith K.. 2008 The development and multiple uses of a standardised bioassay method to select hypocrealean fungi for biological control of aphids. Biological Control, 46 (2). 242-255. 10.1016/j.biocontrol.2008.03.006Full text not available from this repository.
A technically standardised bioassay method was designed, evaluated and used to assess virulence and host range of hypocrealean fungi against aphids. A track mounted sprayer was used to apply conidia because hand held versions of the same sprayer can be used for field applications, thereby allowing the outcome from laboratory experiments to predict activity in the field accurately. Eighteen fungal isolates were assessed in single concentration bioassays against the black bean aphid Aphis fabae Scopoli. Isolates comprised commercially available mycoinsecticides (based on Beauveria bassiana and Lecanicillium longisporum) and isolates of B. bassiana, Lecanicillium spp., Paecilomyces fumosoroseus and Metarhizium anisopliae. Aphid mortality was in excess of 80% for 15 isolates, and HRI 1.72 (L. longipsorum), Z11 (P. fumosoroseus), Mycotech strain GHA (B. bassiana) and ARSEF 2879 (B. bassiana) were studied further. Multiple-concentration bioassays identified HRI 1.72 as the most virulent isolate against A. fabae with significantly smaller LC50 and LT50 values compared to other isolates. A precise LC50 value (2.95x102 conidia ml-1) was calculated for HRI 1.72 using a second multiple-concentration assay with smaller concentrations of conidia. The four isolates were applied at a single concentration (1x108 conidia ml-1) against Myzus persicae, A. fabae, Acyrthosiphon pisum, Metopolophium dirhodum, Sitobion avenae and Rhopalosiphum padi. A ranking of aphid susceptibility was obtained, such that S. avenae>M. persicae, A. pisum, A. fabae> R. padi. Results indicate the importance of standardising bioassay methods to reduce bioassay variability without compromising the ability to use the bioassay to investigate fungus-host interactions under varying abiotic and biotic conditions.
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