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Were the Larsemann Hills ice-free through the Last Glacial Maximum?

Hodgson, D.A.; Noon, P.E.; Vyverman, W.; Bryant, C.L.; Gore, D.B.; Appleby, P.; Gilmour, M.; Verleyen, E.; Sabbe, K.; Jones, V.J.; Ellis-Evans, J.C.; Wood, P.B.. 2001 Were the Larsemann Hills ice-free through the Last Glacial Maximum? Antarctic Science, 13 (4). 440-454. 10.1017/S0954102001000608

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Abstract/Summary

Lake sediments in the Larsemann Hills contain a great diversity ofbiological and physical markers from which past environments can be inferred. In order to determine the timing of environmental changes it is essential to have accurate dating of sediments. We used radiometric (*loPb and I3'Cs), radiocarbon (AMS "C) and uranium series (2'*U) methods to date cores from eleven lakes. These were sampled on coastal to inland transects across the two mainpeninsulas, Broknes and Stornes, together with a single sample from the Bolingen Islands. Radiometric dating of recent sediments yielded *"Pb levels below acceptable detection limits. However, a relatively well-defined peak in I3'Cs gave a date marker which corresponds to the fallout maximum from the atmospheric testing of atomic weapons in 1964/65. Radiocarbon (AMS I4C) measurements showed stratigraphical consistency in the age-depth sequences and undisturbed laminae in some cores provides evidence that the sediments have remained undisturbed by glacial action. In addition, freshwater surface sediments were found to be in near-equilibrium with modern I4CO, and not influenced by radiocarbon contaminationprocesses. This dating program, together with geomorphological records of ice flow directions and glacial sediments, indicates that parts of Broknes were ice-free throughout the Last Glacial Maximum and that some lakes have existed continuously since at least 44 ka BP. Attempts to date sediments older than44 ka BP usingZ3*Ud ating were inconclusive. However, supporting evidence for Broknes being ice-free is provided by an Optically Stimulated Luminescence date from a glaciofluvial deposit. In contrast, Stornes only became ice-free in the mid to late Holocene. This contrasting glacial history results from the D%lk Glacier which diverts ice around Broknes. Lakes onBroknes and some offshore islands therefore contain the oldest known lacustrine sediment records from eastern Antarctica, with the area providing an ice-free oasis and refuge for plants and animals throughoutthe Last Glacial Maximum. These sediments are therefore well placed to unravel a unique lirnnological sequence of environmental and climate changes in East Antarctica from the late Pleistocene to the present. This information may help better constrain models of current climate changes and ensure the adequate protection of these lakes and their catchments from the impacts of recent human occupation.

Item Type: Publication - Article
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): 10.1017/S0954102001000608
Programmes: BAS Programmes > Antarctic Science in the Global Context (2000-2005) > Signals in Antarctica of Past Global Changes
ISSN: 0954-1020
Additional Keywords: Antarctic, deglaciation, Holocene, lakes, Larsemann Hills, Pleistocene
Date made live: 27 Sep 2012 10:28
URI: http://nora.nerc.ac.uk/id/eprint/19759

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