A fluoride risk assessment GIS for Central Europe : Hungary, Moldova, Slovakia and Ukraine
Fordyce, F.M.; Vrana, K.; Zhovinsky, E.; Toth, G.; Hope, B.; Povoroznuk, V.; Iljinsky, U.; Baker, J.. 2003 A fluoride risk assessment GIS for Central Europe : Hungary, Moldova, Slovakia and Ukraine. In: Abstracts of the 6th International Symposium on Environmental Geochemistry. Edinburgh, Scotland, University of Edinburgh, 21.Before downloading, please read NORA policies.
Like many elements, fluoride is beneficial to human health in small doses but can be toxic in excess. The links between low intakes of fluoride and dental protection are well known, however, fluoride is a powerful calcium-seeking element and can interfere with the calcified structure of bones and teeth in the human body at higher concentration causing dental or skeletal fluorosis. One of the main exposure routes is via drinking water and the World Health Organisation currently set the following water quality health criteria: < 0.5 mg/lF no dental protection; 0.5 – 1.5 mg/lF dental benefits are evident; > 1.5 mg/lF dental fluorosis may occur and > 3-5 mg/lF skeletal fluorosis may occur. In Central Europe, groundwater resources that exceed the guideline value of 1.5 mg/l are widespread and health effects associated with high fluoride in water have been reported.
|Item Type:||Publication - Book Section|
|Programmes:||BGS Programmes > Chemical and Biological Hazards|
|NORA Subject Terms:||Earth Sciences
Ecology and Environment
|Date made live:||09 Aug 2012 12:33|
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