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Effects of Ground Level Ozone on Vegetation

Cape, J. Neil. 2010 Effects of Ground Level Ozone on Vegetation. Edinburgh, NERC/Centre for Ecology & Hydrology, 30pp. (CEH Project No: C03108) (Unpublished)

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Abstract/Summary

All the experiments conducted in this project use ozone exposures that either are already currently occurring or are expected to occur over UK uplands this century, if predictions of increasing „background‟ ozone exposure are correct. Uplands are particularly vulnerable to such increases, because they are windy and wet – conditions which favour ozone uptake by vegetation. Consequently, the observations on ozone effects on upland plant species are likely to occur in the foreseeable future, if they are not already happening. The novel field ozone exposure system at Keenley Fell (Northumberland) has been operating since spring 2007. Seasonal average increases in ozone exposure at 10 m from the release point were very small in 2007, increasing to around 5 ppb above ambient in 2008 and 2009. The effects of the ozone treatments on this conservation-managed grassland should be seen in the context of this very modest increase in annual mean exposure. Average deposition velocity for ozone at Keenley Fell was between 1 mm/s (night) and 5 mm/s (mid-day), varying with weather conditions. These flux data will assist with the modelling of ozone deposition to upland grasslands. Limited flux measurements for CO2 showed uptake during the day and release at night, as expected, and will contribute to modelling interactions between ozone and carbon fluxes under these conditions. The ozone treatments at Keenley Fell had no effect on total above-ground production in any of the three years. However, there was a cumulative decrease in forb biomass, with an associated change in forb species composition, over the three years. This was accompanied by an increase in grass biomass. These effects of ozone are antagonistic to the objectives of the conservation management at this site. The biomass and flowering of a small number of individual forb species were significantly reduced by ozone exposure at Keenley Fell. Importantly, these species included the hemi-parasite Rhinanthus minor which is frequently used to enhance species diversity in this type of conservation management. Hence, the observed effects of ozone on species composition may partly have been caused through its adverse effects on Rhinanthus . Data compiled from several experiments show adverse effects of ozone on semi-natural plant species at concentrations as low as 30 ppb, with 12 of the species studied showing effects at concentrations below 50 ppbv. Effects on roots were greater than on shoots, with potentially significant implications for overwintering, drought tolerance and carbon sequestration.

Item Type: Publication - Report (UNSPECIFIED)
Programmes: CEH Topics & Objectives 2009 - 2012 > Biogeochemistry > BGC Topic 3 - Managing Threats to Environment and Health
CEH Sections: Billett (to November 2013)
Funders/Sponsors: Department of Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra)
NORA Subject Terms: Ecology and Environment
Date made live: 25 Oct 2010 10:32
URI: http://nora.nerc.ac.uk/id/eprint/11623

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