The uptake of halogen (HF, HCl, HBr and HI) and nitric (HNO3) acids into acidic sulphate particles in quiescent volcanic plumes
Martin, R.S.; Wheeler, J.C.; Ilyinskaya, E.; Braban, C.F.; Oppenheimer, C.. 2012 The uptake of halogen (HF, HCl, HBr and HI) and nitric (HNO3) acids into acidic sulphate particles in quiescent volcanic plumes. Chemical Geology, 296-297. 19-25. 10.1016/j.chemgeo.2011.12.013Before downloading, please read NORA policies.
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The uptake of halogen and nitric acids into acidic sulphate particles has important implications for volcano monitoring and the environmental geochemistry of volcanic emissions. Using the Extended Aerosol Inorganics Model (E-AIM) for HCl, HBr and HNO3, combined with a simple three-parameter model for HF and HI, we show that equilibrium partitioning of halogen and nitric acids into sulphate particles is maximised at high relative humidity (RH), low temperature, low plume dilution (i.e., near-source) and high SO42 −/SO2. The addition of metal chlorides (i.e., NaCl) enhances acidic gas partitioning at high RH, but diminishes acidic gas partitioning at low RH due to a decrease in the water content of particles and the formation of Na sulphate salts. We predict that acidic gas partitioning is quantitatively significant (> 1%) only in cool humid conditions (e.g., > 80% RH at 298 K), adding confidence to spectroscopic and/or electrochemical determinations of gas ratios (e.g., SO2/HCl, HCl/HF) for volcano monitoring. However, acidic gas partitioning remains environmentally important over a wide range of conditions because of the significant variability in the amounts of acidic gases in particle form (Cl−(aq), Br−(aq), I−(aq), NO3−(aq), HF(aq)). This may result in diurnal and seasonal changes in acidic gas deposition downwind of the volcano.
|Item Type:||Publication - Article|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||10.1016/j.chemgeo.2011.12.013|
|Programmes:||CEH Topics & Objectives 2009 onwards > Biogeochemistry > BGC Topic 2 - Biogeochemistry and Climate System Processes > BGC - 2.1 - Quantify & model processes that control the emission, fate and bioavailability of pollutants|
|CEH Sections:||Billett (to 30 Nov 2013)|
|Additional Information. Not used in RCUK Gateway to Research.:||NOTICE: this is the author’s version of a work that was accepted for publication in Chemical Geology. Changes resulting from the publishing process, such as peer review, editing, corrections, structural formatting, and other quality control mechanisms may not be reflected in this document. Changes may have been made to this work since it was submitted for publication. A definitive version was subsequently published in Chemical Geology, 296-297. 19-25. 10.1016/j.chemgeo.2011.12.013 www.elsevier.com/|
|Additional Keywords:||volcanic plume, equilibrium model, Masaya, E-AIM|
|NORA Subject Terms:||Earth Sciences
|Date made live:||19 Jan 2012 10:09|
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